Церковные ВѢХИ

Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus. Outside the Church there is no salvation, because salvation is the Church. For salvation is the revelation of the way for everyone who believes in Christ's name. This revelation is to be found only in the Church. In the Church, as in the Body of Christ, in its theanthropic organism, the mystery of incarnation, the mystery of the "two natures," indissolubly united, is continually accomplished. -Fr. Georges Florovsky


§ 20. For our faith, brethren, is not of men nor by man, but by revelation of Jesus Christ, which the divine Apostles preached, the holy Ecumenical Councils confirmed, the greatest and wisest teachers of the world handed down in succession, and the shed blood of the holy martyrs ratified. Let us hold fast to the confession which we have received unadulterated from such men, turning away from every novelty as a suggestion of the devil. He that accepts a novelty reproaches with deficiency the preached Orthodox Faith. But that Faith has long ago been sealed in completeness, not to admit of diminution or increase, or any change whatever; and he who dares to do, or advise, or think of such a thing has already denied the faith of Christ, has already of his own accord been struck with an eternal anathema, for blaspheming the Holy Ghost as not having spoken fully in the Scriptures and through the Ecumenical Councils. This fearful anathema, brethren and sons beloved in Christ, we do not pronounce today, but our Savior first pronounced it (Matt. xii. 32): Whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. St. Paul pronounced the same anathema (Gal. i. 6): I marvel that ye are so soon removed from Him that called you into the grace of Christ, unto another Gospel: which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the Gospel of Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you, than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. This same anathema the Seven Ecumenical Councils and the whole choir of God-serving fathers pronounced. All, therefore, innovating, either by heresy or schism, have voluntarily clothed themselves, according to the Psalm (cix. 18), ("with a curse as with a garment,") whether they be Popes, or Patriarchs, or Clergy, or Laity; nay, if any one, though an angel from heaven, preach any other Gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed. Thus our wise fathers, obedient to the soul-saving words of St. Paul, were established firm and steadfast in the faith handed down unbrokenly to them, and preserved it unchanged and uncontaminate in the midst of so many heresies, and have delivered it to us pure and undefiled, as it came pure from the mouth of the first servants of the Word. Let us, too, thus wise, transmit it, pure as we have received it, to coming generations, altering nothing, that they may be, as we are, full of confidence, and with nothing to be ashamed of when speaking of the faith of their forefathers. - Encyclical of the Holy Eastern Patriarchs of 1848

За ВѢру Царя И Отечество

За ВѢру Царя И Отечество
«Кто еси мимо грядый о нас невѣдущиiй, Елицы здѣ естесмо положены сущи, Понеже нам страсть и смерть повѣлѣ молчати, Сей камень возопiетъ о насъ ти вѣщати, И за правду и вѣрность къ Монарсѣ нашу Страданiя и смерти испiймо чашу, Злуданьем Мазепы, всевѣчно правы, Посѣченны зоставше топоромъ во главы; Почиваемъ въ семъ мѣстѣ Матери Владычнѣ, Подающiя всѣмъ своимъ рабомъ животь вѣчный. Року 1708, мѣсяца iюля 15 дня, посѣчены средь Обозу войсковаго, за Бѣлою Церковiю на Борщаговцѣ и Ковшевомъ, благородный Василiй Кочубей, судiя генеральный; Iоаннъ Искра, полковникъ полтавскiй. Привезены же тѣла ихъ iюля 17 въ Кiевъ и того жъ дня въ обители святой Печерской на семъ мѣстѣ погребены».

Thursday, April 1, 2010

Holy and Great Thursday

Holy and Great Thursday

On this day, Holy and Great Thursday, according to the order which our Holy Fathers inherited from the Holy Apostles, and the Holy Gospels, we celebrate four events:

the Holy Washing of the Disciples' feet,
the Mystical Supper (the institution of the Holy Mystery of the Eucharist,
which we celebrate to this day),
the Lord's Agony in the Garden,
and His Betrayal.

On the morrow, Friday, the Passover sacrifice of the Hebrews was intended to take place, namely the slaughter of the lamb reared for this purpose. On that same Friday, the Truth was intended to follow the old type. For it was intended that the true Passover would be sacrificed, the Lamb of God the Father, who takes away the sin of the world - our Lord Jesus Christ, who was prefigured by the paschal lamb which was sacrificed each year by the Hebrews.

On the evening of this day - which was the day of unleavened bread, the eve of the Passover of the Old Law, March 22, the fifth day of the week - Jesus observed the Passover and dined in the city with the Twelve Disciples. The Lord did this on the evening of the fifth day (Thursday), since among the Hebrews the "night-day" reckoning begins with the evening of the present day and is called the evening of the following day. In other words, according to Jewish tradition "Friday evening" was that time period that began after sundown on Thursday. (For example: as in the Orthodox Church today, the "liturgical evening" of a feast day would be that time after Vespers.)

Zebedee (the father of the Holy Apostles James and John) prepared the Passover, since he was the one who carried the earthenware jar of water, as St. Athanasius the Great says and others also say exceptional things about Zebedee.

Afterwards, Jesus revealed more perfect and sublime teaching to His Disciples, and when night fully came, in the Upper Room He handed over the Mystery of our Passover. Thus, it is said that He reclined at supper with the Twelve. Notice that this was not the Passover of the Old Law, because He both reclined and gave a supper of bread and drink. Under the Old Law, the Jews stood, with girded loins and walking staffs in hand during the meal. There all things crumbled away through Fire, including the use of unleavened bread.

Before He began to eat (thus says the divine Chrysostom), He rose from supper, laid aside His garments, and poured water into a basin in preparation for the Washing of the feet. He did these things both to shame Judas and to remind the other Disciples that it is not right to seek the first place. Similarly, after the washing, He exhorted them by saying that he who wishes to be first must be last of all, showing Himself as an example. It seems that Christ first of all washed Judas, who most presumptuously sat first in line, and last He came to Peter. Since Peter was more high-spirited than the others, he prevented the Teacher, but when at the same time he heard from the Lord that if Christ did not wash his feet he would have no part with the Lord, he yielded quite readily.

So our Lord Jesus Christ washed the feet of the Disciples and showed a paradoxical exaltation through humility. He took His garments again and leaned back and exhorted and entreated them that they love one another and not seek the first place. While they were eating, He brought up the main point concerning His Betrayal.

Since the Disciples were confused about His saying, Jesus said quietly to John alone, "It is he to whom I shall give a piece of bread when I have dipped it" (John 13:26). He spoke in this way because if Peter, being more high-spirited than the others, had known the truth, he would have taken it upon himself to strike a blow against Judas.

Jesus said again, "He who dipped his hand with Me in the dish will betray Me" (Matt. 26:23). When both these events had occurred, after a little silence He took the bread and said, "Take, eat; this is My Body" (Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22), and likewise the Cup, "Drink from it, all of you. For this is My Blood of the New Covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins" (Matt. 26:27-28; Mark 14:24). "Do this in memory of Me" (Luke 22:19). He performed these deeds and ate and drank with them.

Notice that He calls His Body bread - not unleavened bread. So let those who offer the unleavened sacrifice be ashamed. After Judas tasted the bread, Satan entered into him, because when he first tempted him he already ruled over him completely. Then he withdrew and proceeded to the High Priests, in order that he might hand Christ over to them for thirty pieces of silver.

After the Supper, the Lord went out with the Disciples to the Mount of Olives, to a certain place called Gethsemane. Then Jesus said to them, "All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written, I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered. But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee" (Matt. 26:31-32; Mark 14:27).

Peter said to Him, "Even if all are made to stumble, yet I will not be."

Jesus said to him, "Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night, before the cock crows twice, you will deny Me three times" (Mark 14:28-30). He said "before the cock crows twice," because customarily the cock crows not once but even two or three times, and accordingly it so happened. Immeasurable grief, signifying the weakness of human nature, overtook Peter because of this saying of the Lord. The Lord withdrew in order that this might take place - after He handed over the whole world to Himself - so that of Himself He might make known the fickleness of human nature and grant pardon to sinners.

Nevertheless, on a higher level, the threefold denial of Peter depicted the sins of all men against God. These are the following: first is the transgression of the commandment which God gave to Adam, second is the transgression of the written Law, and third is the rejection of the Gospel proclamation.

But when Peter repented, the Lord healed his denial and said three times, "Simon, son of Jonah, do you love Me?" (John 21:17).

Thereafter, Jesus wished to show to the Disciples how fearful death is for all men, and He said, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me." He went a little farther and fell on His face and prayed, saying, "O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will but as You will" (Matt. 26:38-39). He said these things as a man in order to cleverly deceive the devil, so that he might think that Christ, although appearing as a man, feared death. He did this, while knowing the truth, so He might not forsake the Mystery of the Cross.

After this first prayer, the Lord returned to the Disciples and found them deep in sleep. Then the Lord addressed Peter and said, "What? Could you not watch with Me one hour? Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak" (Matt. 26:40-41). He said these things to Peter so that he would clearly understand that He meant, "You say that you wish to struggle until death, so you doze in this manner with the rest?"

Again, a second time, He went away and prayed, saying, "O My Father, if this cup cannot pass away from Me unless I drink it, Your will be done." And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy. So He left them, went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words (Matt. 26:42-44).

Then an angel appeared to Him from Heaven, strengthening Him. And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground (Luke 22:43-44). Then He came to His Disciples and said to them, "Are you still sleeping and resting? Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise, let us be going. See, My betrayer is at hand" (Matt. 26:45-46).

Then He went beyond the brook of Kidron, where there was a garden that He entered with His Disciples. The Lord regularly frequented the garden, and so Judas was well acquainted with the place. Judas then took some of the band of soldiers, with a crowd following, and came upon Jesus, giving them the signal of the false kiss. He arranged it in this way because many times when the Lord was seized He passed out of their midst unseen. Yet the Lord came forward and said to them, "Whom are you seeking?" (John 18:4,7). Since it was still night, they did not recognize Him. Therefore they looked upon Him with lighted lanterns and torches, and with fear they slowly withdrew. When they returned, He made all things known.

When Judas gave the signal, Christ said, "Friend, why have you come?" (Matt.26:50). That is to say, "It is well timed, Judas, that you came." And again He said, "Have you come out, as against a robber, with swords and clubs to take Me? I sat daily with you, teaching in the Temple, and you did not seize Me" (Matt. 26:55). They came at night so that some kind of riot might not be provoked by the crowd.

Then the very high-spirited Peter drew back a sword and rushed at Malchus, the servant of the High Priest, cutting off his right ear - the implication being that the High Priest neither heard nor taught the Law correctly. Then Christ reproved Peter, saying that it is not good that a spiritual man is known to make use of a sword, and He healed the ear of Malchus. They arrested Jesus and brought Him bound to the courtyard of the former High Priest, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas. There all the Pharisees and Scribes who held sentiments against Christ had been assembled.

Also, as the night passed on, there occurred the conversation between Peter and the servant girl during which he denied the Lord three times as the cock crowed twice. When Peter remembered the Lord's prophecy, he wept bitterly (see Mark 14:66-72).

When day arrived, they brought Christ from Annas to the High Priest Caiaphas, where He accepted both the spitters and the false witnesses who were summoned. When the day was already advanced, Caiaphas sent Him to Pilate. Those who brought Him did not enter into the Praetorium. so that they might not be defiled and might eat the Passover. For it appears that it was fitting that they eat the Passover then, especially from the many things Christ said before the Supper on Thursday evening when He ate it and afterwards handed over the more superb and exalted teachings. For, as we have said before, it was fitting that the Truth was to follow what was typified in the Law. As St. John the Theologian says, all these events came together before the feast of the Passover during the night of Thursday and on into Friday. For this reason we keep the feast, properly remembering these awesome and ineffable works and deeds.

Through Thy ineffable compassion, O Christ our God, have mercy on us and save us. Amen.

Troparion, Tone 8

When the glorious disciples at the supper were illumined by the washing of the feet, then was the impious Judas darkened by the disease of avarice. And he betrays Thee, the Righteous Judge, to the lawless judges. See, O lover of possessions, how for money's sake he hanged himself! Flee from that insatiate soul, which dared such things against His Master. O Lord, who art good towards all men, glory to Thee!

Kontakion, Tone 2

Having taken the bread in his hands, the traitor stretches out those hands in secret to receive the price of Him who with his hands created man. And Judas the slave and deceiver still repented not.

Ikos: Having all approached the mystical supper in fear, let receive the bread in purity of soul and remain with the Master, that we may behold how He washes the feet of His disciples. And let us do as we have seen Him do, submitting one to another and washing each other's feet. For so Christ commanded His disciples. But Judas the slave and deceiver took no heed.
The Exapostilarion (The Hymn of Light)

Thy bridal chamber, O my Savior, I see adorned, and I have no raiment with which to enter therein. Enlighten the garment of my soul, O Giver of Light, and save me.


A Trebnik Prayer on Holy Thursday

O All-Holy and most merciful Master, we sing and praise Thee Who art God without sin, Who didst accept the Passion for our sakes and willingly suffer in the flesh. For when the florious Disciples were enlightened by the washing at Supper, then the impious Judas, ailing with greed, was darkened, taking thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him that was valued, and betrayed the Just Judge to the most unjust chief priests and scribes. For though he was filled with many good gifts and had become a disciple, yet he plotted to betray Thee, the immortal King and Lord of Glory, to the unrighteous wolves. He laid hands on the halter, who had dipped his hand into the bowl; he said to the lawless chief priests, Him Whom I shall greet with a false embrace, He it is, seize ye Him. For the ways of greed, O lawless Judas, brought thee the halter, whereby thou didst suffer God's righteous judgment. But we the faithful, if in love we are communicants of the most pure and lifegiving Body and Blood, worship the Saviour, in His sufferings on the Cross, the Entombment and Resurrection of our Lord, God and Saviour Jesus Christ.For Thine is the Kingdom, and the power, and the glory, of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and unto ages of ages.



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