Церковные ВѢХИ

Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus. Outside the Church there is no salvation, because salvation is the Church. For salvation is the revelation of the way for everyone who believes in Christ's name. This revelation is to be found only in the Church. In the Church, as in the Body of Christ, in its theanthropic organism, the mystery of incarnation, the mystery of the "two natures," indissolubly united, is continually accomplished. -Fr. Georges Florovsky


§ 20. For our faith, brethren, is not of men nor by man, but by revelation of Jesus Christ, which the divine Apostles preached, the holy Ecumenical Councils confirmed, the greatest and wisest teachers of the world handed down in succession, and the shed blood of the holy martyrs ratified. Let us hold fast to the confession which we have received unadulterated from such men, turning away from every novelty as a suggestion of the devil. He that accepts a novelty reproaches with deficiency the preached Orthodox Faith. But that Faith has long ago been sealed in completeness, not to admit of diminution or increase, or any change whatever; and he who dares to do, or advise, or think of such a thing has already denied the faith of Christ, has already of his own accord been struck with an eternal anathema, for blaspheming the Holy Ghost as not having spoken fully in the Scriptures and through the Ecumenical Councils. This fearful anathema, brethren and sons beloved in Christ, we do not pronounce today, but our Savior first pronounced it (Matt. xii. 32): Whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. St. Paul pronounced the same anathema (Gal. i. 6): I marvel that ye are so soon removed from Him that called you into the grace of Christ, unto another Gospel: which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the Gospel of Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you, than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. This same anathema the Seven Ecumenical Councils and the whole choir of God-serving fathers pronounced. All, therefore, innovating, either by heresy or schism, have voluntarily clothed themselves, according to the Psalm (cix. 18), ("with a curse as with a garment,") whether they be Popes, or Patriarchs, or Clergy, or Laity; nay, if any one, though an angel from heaven, preach any other Gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed. Thus our wise fathers, obedient to the soul-saving words of St. Paul, were established firm and steadfast in the faith handed down unbrokenly to them, and preserved it unchanged and uncontaminate in the midst of so many heresies, and have delivered it to us pure and undefiled, as it came pure from the mouth of the first servants of the Word. Let us, too, thus wise, transmit it, pure as we have received it, to coming generations, altering nothing, that they may be, as we are, full of confidence, and with nothing to be ashamed of when speaking of the faith of their forefathers. - Encyclical of the Holy Eastern Patriarchs of 1848

За ВѢру Царя И Отечество

За ВѢру Царя И Отечество
«Кто еси мимо грядый о нас невѣдущиiй, Елицы здѣ естесмо положены сущи, Понеже нам страсть и смерть повѣлѣ молчати, Сей камень возопiетъ о насъ ти вѣщати, И за правду и вѣрность къ Монарсѣ нашу Страданiя и смерти испiймо чашу, Злуданьем Мазепы, всевѣчно правы, Посѣченны зоставше топоромъ во главы; Почиваемъ въ семъ мѣстѣ Матери Владычнѣ, Подающiя всѣмъ своимъ рабомъ животь вѣчный. Року 1708, мѣсяца iюля 15 дня, посѣчены средь Обозу войсковаго, за Бѣлою Церковiю на Борщаговцѣ и Ковшевомъ, благородный Василiй Кочубей, судiя генеральный; Iоаннъ Искра, полковникъ полтавскiй. Привезены же тѣла ихъ iюля 17 въ Кiевъ и того жъ дня въ обители святой Печерской на семъ мѣстѣ погребены».

Monday, March 1, 2010

On the Massacre of Jews during the First Days of the Occupation

Ukrainian nationalists beating a Jew in Lvov on the first day of German occupation in 1941


D. Kahane

The devil's game began

On the Massacre of Jews during the First Days of the Occupation

At the time Lvov was occupied by the Germans, 135,000 Jews resided in the city. Among them there were refugees Poland, who managed to flee in September 1939. Besides that, many Jews moved to Lvov from small towns in western Ukraine after Soviet rule had been established there. Lvov had never had so many Jews before.
It began on Tuesday, July 2, in the morning, when the Soviet troops left Lvov. The city had three prisons stuffed with inmates. Inmates were of different sorts, but most of them were either criminals or political prisoners. Many of them were sentenced to death, and their corpses were buried in the prison courtyard. The Germans opened the prison gates and released most of the inmates.

The Gestapo decided to make use of what had happened in the prison under the Soviet rule for the purposes of propaganda. In presence of special commissions, Jews were made to dig out the corpses of prison inmates. The action was shot by film operators to be shown later as evidence of the execution of innocent people by the "Jewish Bolsheviks."

The devil's game started. The Germans were seizing Jews in the streets or at home and forcing them to work in prison. The arrests of the Jews were also conducted by the newly created Ukrainian police. The Ukrainians and Poles were ready to help the Germans. The operation was over in three to four days. Every morning about a thousand Jews were brought and distributed among the three prisons. Some were ordered to break concrete and dig out corpses. Others were shot in the small inner courtyards of the prisons. But even those "lucky ones" who were working often did not come home. Some fainted because of the stench of open graves. These people were dragged away and also shot. Guards in gas masks were German soldiers and officers. From time to time they would cheer themselves yelling, "Revenge is sweet!" The "Aryan" residents of Lvov participated in this brutal show. Their crowds wandered along prison corridors and courtyards, observing with satisfaction the suffering of the Jews. There could be heard hysterical outcries, "Shoot them! Shoot the murderers!" Here and there volunteers could be found to help the Germans in the beating of Jews. During the first days of the occupation of Lvov more than 3,000 Jews were killed in the Lvov prisons. Among them one of the best known and popular rabbis of Lvov - Doctor Yehezkel Leaven and his brother, the rabbi of the town of Zheshkov, Aaron Levin.

The story of the death of the rabbi, Doctor Levin, deserves attention. Immediately after the seizure of Lvov by the Germans, the city was filled by rampaging Ukrainians. Information about pogroms conducted by Ukrainians started coming in to Lvov from surrounding towns. Rabbi Yehezkel Levin decided to address a complaint to the archbishop of Ukraine, Sheptyts'kyi, known for his sympathy towards Jews.1 Accompanied by two representatives of the Jewish community, the rabbi went to the residence of the archbishop on the Iura Hill on the morning of July 2. The archbishop talked to the delegation immediately upon its arrival and promised to send a pastoral letter to his parish, in which he would warn the Ukrainians against murders and plundering. Yet, he admitted his inability to influence any matters concerning the Germans.

At the end, the archbishop suggested that Levin stay with him, since the streets were dangerous. At this time the rabbi of the town of Podhaitsy, Lilienfeld, a close acquaintance of the Sheptyts'ki family, was staying at Sheptys'kyi's house. The rabbi expressed his gratitude but rejected the offer. At the gates he was awaited by a priest, who was supposed to see him home. On Kollontai Street he sent the priest back. He walked into his house and went up the stairs. At the door to his apartment he was met by two policemen. They arrested him. He never came home.

Gitelman, Zvi, Bitter Legacy: Confronting the Holocaust in the USSR. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1997. pp. 278 - 280


No comments:

Post a Comment